Innovation in Nanopharmacology
Nanopharmacology is the use of nanotechnology for -- discovery of new pharmacological molecular entities; selection of pharmaceuticals for specific individuals to maximize effectiveness and minimize side effects; and delivery of pharmaceuticals to targeted locations or tissues within the body.
Nanotechnology will generally be defined as the science of constructing and assembling
objects on a scale littler than one hundred nanometers. The end results of
nanotechnology may be miniature particles (in powders, lotions or coatings)
or macro-scale objects with nanoscale modules and unique characteristics.
The ultimate vision for nanotechnology is the capacity to form virtually
any matter or object from scratch. More low-level nanotechnology applications
involve progress in an incremental manner -- producing littler and faster
electronic circuits, directed drug delivery systems, cleaner textiles, stronger
tennis rackets, brighter paints, and various incremental products and services.
Nanotechnology inspires the imagination, but not all visions of the future of nanotechnology are pleasant. Images of nanotechnology in movies, television, and the popular press sometimes involve reproducing nanobots that have gone awry in a swelling sea of gray sludge. However, in real life nanotechnology is much more probable to keep your clothes free from wrinkles than to take over your city. Nonetheless, many scientists take these concerns seriously and are working to insure that the fruits of nanotechnology are safe and positive.
Most current nanotechnology products and services begin with the growth of basic nanostructures rather than the painstaking assembly of materials and items one atom at a time. Circular nanostructures incorporate nanoshells, nanospheres and nanocircles. Circular nanostructures are used for: selected energy wave reflection; absorption, transportation, and diffusion of matter; and friction reduction products and services. Elongated and angular nanostructures incorporate nanotubes, nanohexagons, and nanowires. Elongated nanostructures are used for: constructing high-strength, low-weight composites; and super minuscule, high conductivity integrated circuit circuits. Thus far, most of these nanostructures have been relatively expensive to manufacture. However, production costs are dropping with the invention of more efficient manufacturing ways and nanomaterials are being used in a wider and wider range of merchandise. Related Nanotechnology in Manufacturing.
Nanomanufacturing is the assembly of substances and products through: (1) Direct Molecular Assembly (DMA) -- separate, directed assembly of individual atoms and micro-scale materials into larger scale substances and products; (2) Indirect Crystalline Assembly (ICA) -- creation of conditions that foster the growth of nano size crystals that are then combined into macroscale materials and outputs; or (3) Massive Parallelism Assembly (MPA) -- the creation of a large number of nanomachines or nanorobots whose operating parameters affect them to work synergistically to engineer atoms and molecules into macroscale materials and inventions.
Future developments at the intersection of matter science and nanotechnology will probably lead to the assembly of smart matter that sense and adjust to their biosphere. These "smart materials" will respond to temperature, pressure, light, electricity, or other stimuli. Nanotechnology may form smart elements (and things made with such materials) equipped with nanosensors and versatile internal patterns that modification shape and function with varying conditions and commands. See furthermore Virtual Reality.
Nanotechnology has the promise to completely revolutionize the electronics industry. Nanomachines will potentially some day produce machine circuits from the “bottom up” -- one atom at a time. This would facilitate the manufacturing of nanochips on a much tinier perspective than chips assembled with contemporary “top down” etching techniques. Nanocrystalline processes may additionally be used to grow circuitry parts. For example: (1) carbon nanotubes grown in guided micro-environments may have super-conductive features; and (2) nanowires as microscopic as strings of atoms will likely be grown like crystals and then assembled into circuits. Circuits formed atom-by-atom or grown using nanocrystalline techniques will be much tinier, lighter, efficient, cooler, stronger, and swifter than circuits made with standard manufacturing processes.
Nanotechnology additionally has a large number of uses in the making, transmission, preservation and transformation of energy. Generators comprised of a myriad of nanoscale generators working together will likely produce energy with higher efficiency than generators with larger scale elements. Nanoceramic insulation will likely reduce energy loss through transmission wires and prolong battery life. Nanomotors turn energy into propulsion with less friction than macro-scale motors. Nanolubricants make macroscale motors more energy efficient. Nanophotonic tissue efficiently turn electricity to beam or illumination into energy. Related Fluidigm.
There are a large number of capability products and services for nanotechnology in the fields of protection, security and ecological safety. Nanomachines with sensors and molecular modifiers will likely recognize and neutralize chemical toxins and living hazards. Nanomembranes can filter and remove toxins from the air and water. Hazardous materials can be deconstructed into harmless subsets by carefully-controlled nano-bots. Nanosensors can be used for protection and surveillance systems, but this should be accompanied by legal safeguards to avoid abuses. Additional Virtual Conference Realtime Display.
Nanomedicine is the use of nanotechnology to biomedical research and the practice of medical practice. Nanomedical products and services currently include: prevention, diagnosis, and treatment of illness and injury; and enhancement of human tangible and mental functioning. For example, nanoparticles that locate and bind to cancer cells may be used to image and diagnosis cancer. When these particles function as nanomedibots that release anti-cancer biologic agents into the tissue or penetrate the tissue and deconstruct them mechanically, then they treat cancer. Particles may furthermore absorb infrared radiation which is converted to heat to ablate target (cancer) tissue. Finally, when administered prophylactically (as a nanovaccination) then they will generally also serve a preventative role.
Nanopharmacology products and services: diagnose conditions and perceive pathogens; identify optimal drug agents to treat the condition or pathogens; fuel high-yield production of matched pharmaceuticals (potentially in vivo); locate, attach or enter target tissue, configurations or pathogens; and dispense the ideal mass of matched biological compound to the target locations. Also interesting, Triton BioSystems.
Nanoparticles made of bioresorbable materials can be used to deliver drugs to a specific position within the body or to particular types of tissue scattered throughout the body. Fullerenes are spherical, hollow nanoparticles that may be used for nanosize medicine delivery in this way. The nanoparticles or capsules not just protect the biologic agent along the way, but biologic coverings on the nanocapsules bind with target cells and trigger timed release of their pharmaceutical payload. This allows selective killing of cancer cells or viruses that at the present time resist medical healing, with minimal systemic molecular compound concentration and side effects. Future nanocapsules could even perform like miniature man-made viruses, except instead of delivering nucleic acids upon penetration of the cell membrane, they release a pharmaceutical within the target cell. In fact, researchers are investigating the use of empty virus capsules for this purpose.
Nanotechnology will likely additionally be used to partially repair neurological damage. For example, it will likely improve the correctness of cochlear implants that turn sound into electrical impulses and make light-activated implants in the retina to partially restore lost vision. Also, biomemetic scaffolds can improve damaged nerves to regrow and reconnect. For more: Advance Nanotech.
Nanotechnology will potentially one day be able to assemble nanomedibots that function like engineered white-blood cells – repairing tissue at a nanoscale scale. We have already said that nanocapsules may transport and release drugs. They will generally also contain living cells that release therapeutic agents, protecting the cells from rejection or destruction by the host by camouflaging them from the host’s immune system. Some day there will potentially even be nanotech blood vessels for implantation in people with cardiovascular sickness.
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